},{ { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654150' }}, bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776156', position: 'atf' }}, }, "Sending your child to koma [initiation school] is a tough decision for any parent to make," he says, looking at a certificate given as proof that his son has completed the ritual. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776142', position: 'btf' }}, The initiation rites help in structuring the community through age sets or groups.People of the same group treat each other as brothers and sisters. userSync: { {code: 'ad_contentslot_2', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_mpuslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/mpuslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250], [320, 100], [320, 50], [300, 50]] } }, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '555366', size: [320, 100] }}, { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_stickyslot' }}]}, initiation ceremony definition: 1. a process or event that a person takes part in to become an official member of a group 2. a…. 'max': 3, { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654150' }}, } { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_leftslot' }}]}, dfpSlots['contentslot_1'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/mpuslot', [[300, 250], [336, 280], 'fluid'], 'ad_contentslot_1').defineSizeMapping(mapping_contentslot).setTargeting('cdo_si', '1').setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'mid').setTargeting('hp', 'center').addService(googletag.pubads()); Academia.edu uses cookies to personalize content, tailor ads and improve the user experience. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162050', zoneId: '776340', position: 'btf' }}, The post Initiation Chamber and Ceremony in a Mystery School appeared first on Solar Wind. The main purpose of the study was to explore the effects of initiation ceremonies on students’ academic performance in primary schools of Newala District. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776140', position: 'atf' }}, {code: 'ad_rightslot', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_rightslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/rightslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250]] } }, { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_mpuslot2' }}]}]; { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_mpuslot2' }}]}]; {code: 'ad_rightslot', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_rightslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/rightslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250]] } }, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195464', size: [160, 600] }}, bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776142', position: 'btf' }}, priceGranularity: customGranularity, ga('create', 'UA-31379-3',{cookieDomain:'dictionary.cambridge.org',siteSpeedSampleRate: 10}); { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_btmslot' }}]}, }); { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654150' }}, { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654151' }}, { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654174' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195455', size: [320, 50] }}, bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162050', zoneId: '776336', position: 'btf' }}, } bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162050', zoneId: '776358', position: 'atf' }}, var mapping_stickyslot = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([746, 0], []).addSize([0, 550], [[300, 50], [320, 50], [320, 100]]).addSize([0, 0], [[300, 50], [320, 50]]).build(); { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_SR' }}, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '346698' }}, type: "html5", var mapping_topslot_a = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([746, 0], []).addSize([0, 550], [[300, 250]]).addSize([0, 0], [[300, 50], [320, 50], [320, 100]]).build(); "noPingback": true, 6 No. 'min': 0, It could also be a formal admission to adulthood in a community or one of its formal components. name: "unifiedId", name: "pubCommonId", Age at initiation: The age at which initiation ceremonies take place ranges from around 6 up to 18 years. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_MidArticle' }}, },{ 1, Aug. 2014 10 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM In recent years, education for both girls and boys has been emphasized through primary and secondary education expires: 365 { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654149' }}, The South African authorities have suspended several initiation schools where boys have died in recent weeks taking part in circumcision ceremonies. ga('set', 'dimension2', "entryex"); Learn more. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '541044957', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, {code: 'ad_contentslot_2', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_mpuslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/mpuslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250], [336, 280]] } }, { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_topslot' }}]}, {code: 'ad_btmslot_a', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_btmslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/btmslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250], [320, 50], [300, 50]] } }, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_MidArticle' }}, { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654189' }}, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_Billboard' }}, dfpSlots['btmslot_a'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/btmslot', [[300, 250], 'fluid'], 'ad_btmslot_a').defineSizeMapping(mapping_btmslot_a).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'btm').setTargeting('hp', 'center').addService(googletag.pubads()); { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195453', size: [300, 50] }}, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '387232' }}, { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_topslot' }}]}, By PRATCH RUJIVANAROM THE NATION. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654156' }}, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '448836' }}, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_MidArticle' }}, }; { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '446384' }}, There was first the matter of her initiation ceremonies. storage: { 2. 'pa pdd chac-sb tc-bd bw hbr-20 hbss lpt-25' : 'hdn'">. { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_rightslot' }}, { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_mpuslot' }}, {code: 'ad_topslot_b', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_topslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/topslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[728, 90]] } }, "sign-out": "https://dictionary.cambridge.org/auth/signout?rid=READER_ID" ... She stated that only those already in initiation schools would be allowed to finish. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_HDX' }}, Reopening regulated schools will avoid the proliferation of illegal schools. "authorization": "https://dictionary.cambridge.org/auth/info?rid=READER_ID&url=CANONICAL_URL&ref=DOCUMENT_REFERRER&type=ENTRY_TRANSLATE&v1=english&v2=initiation-ceremony&v3=&v4=english&_=RANDOM", iasLog("criterion : cdo_dc = english"); { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '346688' }}, }] { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_leftslot' }}]}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195466', size: [728, 90] }}, The sacred initiation ceremony was held on May 22, 1931. { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '448834' }}, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '346688' }}, ga('require', 'displayfeatures'); {code: 'ad_rightslot', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_rightslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/rightslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250]] } }, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195454', size: [336, 280] }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195466', size: [728, 90] }}, },{ The financial burden for families is rather large. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195465', size: [300, 250] }}, Many places all over the world will experience agonizing rites of passage in order to prove their faith, dexterity, and maturity, even at the risk of extreme pain. iasLog("exclusion label : wprod"); { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195455', size: [300, 250] }}, dfpSlots['leftslot'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/leftslot', [[120, 600], [160, 600]], 'ad_leftslot').defineSizeMapping(mapping_leftslot).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'top').setTargeting('hp', 'left').addService(googletag.pubads()); { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_btmslot' }}]}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195464', size: [120, 600] }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195454', size: [336, 280] }}, if(pl_p) 'buckets': [{ { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971063', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_mpuslot2_flex' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195453', size: [300, 250] }}, In the rituals of these degrees, O.T.O. Initiation is a rite of passage marking entrance or acceptance into a group or society. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_MidArticle' }}, { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654157' }}, { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971080', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '19061233' }}, { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654192' }}, { { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971067', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, In June, the province saw a number of illegal initiation schools take advantage of the closure formal schools, said Mavuso. dfpSlots['stickyslot'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/stickyslot', [], 'ad_stickyslot').defineSizeMapping(mapping_stickyslot).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'btm').setTargeting('hp', 'center').addService(googletag.pubads()); expires: 365 { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '555366', size: [300, 50] }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195452', size: [300, 250] }}, { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_mpuslot1' }}]}, var mapping_rightslot = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([746, 0], [[300, 250]]).addSize([0, 0], []).build(); },{ var pbMobileLrSlots = [ { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195453', size: [320, 50] }}, googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_t", "lifestyle"); { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971065', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971070', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_mpuslot_flex' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '555366', size: [300, 50] }}, { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_leftslot_160x600' }}, { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_leftslot' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195453', size: [300, 50] }}, var dfpSlots = {}; Some boys and girls attend initiation ceremonies quite late, for example at the age of 18, mainly due to "loggedIn": false { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195452', size: [300, 250] }}, Boys who have returned from initiation school performing for villagers. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_HDX' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195467', size: [300, 50] }}, if(refreshConfig.enabled == true) iasLog("criterion : cdo_c = " + ["people_society_religion"]); { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_mpuslot' }}, var pbHdSlots = [ "sign-up": "https://dictionary.cambridge.org/auth/signup?rid=READER_ID", }, storage: { type: "cookie", A ceremony, ritual, test, or period of instruction with which a new member is admitted to an organization or office … name: "identityLink", {code: 'ad_contentslot_2', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_mpuslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/mpuslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250], [336, 280]] } }, { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_btmslot' }}]}, { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971079', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_mpuslot' }}, var pbTabletSlots = [ { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '446383' }}, Downing a pint containing a live goldfish, eating raw squid and wearing kippers around necks are … iasLog("criterion : cdo_ptl = entry-mcp"); { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971066', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, "authorizationFallbackResponse": { { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '387232' }}, In an extended sense it can also signify a transformation in which the initiate is 'reborn' into a new role. { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_rightslot_flex' }}, name: "_pubcid", { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_topslot' }}, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_MidArticle' }}, { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654149' }}, { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_topslot_728x90' }}, {code: 'ad_contentslot_1', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_mpuslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/mpuslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250], [336, 280]] } }, { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_rightslot' }}]}, {code: 'ad_btmslot_a', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_btmslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/btmslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250]] } }, At the conclusion of the rites, the initiate is allowed to become sexually active and to begin the protracted process of engagement and marriage. Contains Parliamentary information licensed under the. iasLog("criterion : sfr = cdo_dict_english"); bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162050', zoneId: '776358', position: 'atf' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195454', size: [336, 280] }}, As the country moved through lockdown alert levels to Level 1, there was a possibility that the rite of passage would resume for the summer season. { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '446385' }}, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_HDX' }}, Click on the arrows to change the translation direction. { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '446384' }}, bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776130', position: 'btf' }}, Where can I find a registered initiation school? pid: '94' var googletag = googletag || {}; dfpSlots['houseslot_b'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/houseslot', [], 'ad_houseslot_b').defineSizeMapping(mapping_houseslot_b).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'btm').setTargeting('hp', 'center').setCategoryExclusion('house').addService(googletag.pubads()); The ex-secretary's nephew decides to join the rebel forces, and to do this he must first participate in a voodoo. { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_btmslot_300x250' }}, iasLog("criterion : cdo_l = en"); c. The condition of being initiated. The structure of O.T.O., like that of Freemasonry and the ancient mystery schools, is based on a staged series of initiations or degrees. }], { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a9690ab01717182962182bb50ce0007', pos: 'cdo_mpuslot_mobile_flex' }}, bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776142', position: 'btf' }}, Smilies’ Initiation Ceremony Not many occasions during a school year fill our hearts with more joy and provide a bigger dose of cuteness than the official Smilies’ initiation ceremony. {code: 'ad_stickyslot', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_stickyslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/stickyslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 50], [320, 50], [320, 100]] } }, { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971081', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, From initiation to secrecy, the mystery schools were ancient societies that taught exclusive religious wisdom. Photos of the initiation ceremony at the St. Dominika Savio Sialesian School (Gimnazjum Salezjańskie) in Lubln were posted on the high school's web site. Grounds for concern over school initiation ceremony. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162050', zoneId: '776338', position: 'btf' }}, 'increment': 1, { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654174' }}, The migratory route of the settlement's founding patrilineage is recollected at certain ritual occasions at the village earth shrine and during the, In the past, rural communities would save up to hire the troupe for a temple festival, a house-warming party, or a novice, Frequently the teacher takes a portion of his students, normally his best or wealthiest, and makes them, in an, In this case, a boy aged about twelve is being interviewed about a school, Our traditions have evolved through the centuries and, like most traditions, they include the, This is not a superior kind of public school where an, Whatever it symbolises, it is certainly a nerve-wracking tribal, In line with this explanation, the two masked figures around the two sacrificed characters would be shamans attending an, The right to perform a yajna or homa is received by an, Many different clans will assemble to participate in an. var mapping_leftslot = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([1063, 0], [[120, 600], [160, 600], [300, 600]]).addSize([963, 0], [[120, 600], [160, 600]]).addSize([0, 0], []).build(); The first initiation ceremony took place on February 11, 1909. Any opinions in the examples do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge Dictionary editors or of Cambridge University Press or its licensors. iasLog("criterion : cdo_ei = initiation-ceremony"); { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195455', size: [320, 100] }}, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '446381' }}, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '446383' }}, Initiation is still practised among both males and females in Ndebele society, marking the passage from childhood to adult status. iasLog("setting page_url: - https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/initiation-ceremony"); { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195467', size: [320, 100] }}, }, Browse our dictionary apps today and ensure you are never again lost for words. googletag.enableServices(); Every year at our initiation ceremony we come together wearing white and wearing our cords indicating ourselves as priestesses. 'max': 8, dfpSlots['topslot_b'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/topslot', [[728, 90]], 'ad_topslot_b').defineSizeMapping(mapping_topslot_b).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'top').setTargeting('hp', 'center').addService(googletag.pubads()); googletag.cmd.push(function() { { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '555366', size: [320, 50] }}, bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776140', position: 'atf' }}, { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971066', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '387233' }}, syncDelay: 3000 'cap': true { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195453', size: [320, 50] }}, params: { googletag.pubads().setTargeting("sfr", "cdo_dict_english"); { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_mpuslot1' }}]}, { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_btmslot' }}, iasLog("criterion : cdo_pc = dictionary"); { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_stickyslot' }}]}, { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_mpuslot_flex' }}, { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971068', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654151' }}, The end of this initiation ceremony partially described in the quote (it goes on for pages), is not sudden enlightenment. {code: 'ad_leftslot', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_leftslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/leftslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[120, 600], [160, 600]] } }, b. The Investiture Ceremony. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971079', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776144', position: 'btf' }}, {code: 'ad_topslot_b', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_topslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/topslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[728, 90]] } }, bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162050', zoneId: '1673732', position: 'atf' }}, { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654157' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195465', size: [300, 250] }}, Initiation rites are part humiliation, part thrill, designed to instil a sense of bonded togetherness - and they've been deployed by all sorts of different societies. { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_stickyslot' }}, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '446385' }}, { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654192' }}, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_MidArticle' }}, "This is a traditional cultural thing that people believe in, and it will be very difficult to just say let us end initiation ceremonies," Mkandawire said. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_SR' }}, }, The election process for the various posts of the Student Council was held two weeks prior to the ceremony. A survey study design was used and collection of data was done through interviews, iasLog("criterion : cdo_tc = resp"); { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_HDX' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '194852', size: [300, 250] }}, Traditional initiation schools remain suspended. 'min': 31, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_SR' }}, 'increment': 0.5, { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_mpuslot' }}, params: { 2018. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195464', size: [300, 600] }}, This post first appeared on Solar Wind, please read the originial post: here. It is reproduced here in the hope that possibly other science clubs, lacking an initiation ceremony, may find it useful in working out their own ritual. { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_topslot' }}, { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971080', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, storage: { { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11653860' }}, {code: 'ad_contentslot_1', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_mpuslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/mpuslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250], [320, 100], [320, 50], [300, 50]] } }, { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11653860' }}, { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_rightslot' }}]}, 'increment': 0.05, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_MidArticle' }}, The missionaries objected to initiation, and it became rare during colonial years, except among the Tlokoa in the mountains. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_mpuslot1' }}]}, name: "pbjs-unifiedid", In January 2014, Desmond Tutu urged traditional leadership and government to intervene, and "to draw on the skills of qualified medical practitioners to enhance our traditional circumcision practices." Usage explanations of natural written and spoken English, 0 && stateHdr.searchDesk ? { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a9690ab01717182962182bb50ce0007', pos: 'cdo_mpuslot2_mobile_flex' }}, var pbDesktopSlots = [ var mapping_btmslot_a = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([746, 0], [[300, 250], 'fluid']).addSize([0, 0], [[300, 250], [320, 50], [300, 50], 'fluid']).build(); { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971069', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, Initiation ceremonies provide an occasion for offering prayers to God for the well being of the initiates and the prosperity of the whole community. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_topslot' }}]}, { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_topslot_728x90' }}, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '346693' }}, "login": { { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971070', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a9690ab01717182962182bb50ce0007', pos: 'cdo_topslot_mobile_flex' }}, By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162050', zoneId: '776336', position: 'btf' }}, bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162050', zoneId: '1673732', position: 'atf' }}, googletag.pubads().disableInitialLoad(); pbjs.setConfig(pbjsCfg); { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_mpuslot1' }}]}, { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_mpuslot' }}, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '446382' }}, Effects of Initiation Rituals to Primary and Secondary School Girls in Morogoro Rural District ISSN : 2351-8014 Vol. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195451', size: [300, 250] }}, dfpSlots['contentslot_2'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/mpuslot', [[300, 250], [336, 280], 'fluid'], 'ad_contentslot_2').defineSizeMapping(mapping_contentslot).setTargeting('cdo_si', '2').setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'mid').setTargeting('hp', 'center').addService(googletag.pubads()); Of initiation Rituals to Primary and Secondary School Girls in School with a more age-appropriate initiation.... 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